Crawford, et al (2008) said “There are three primary formats which can be used to design, develop and implement learning environments”:
• Traditional: Face-to-Face Learning Environments
• Web-Enhanced: Hybrid Learning Environments
• Web-Based: Distance or Online Learning Environments
A first look at face-to-face (F2F) learning shows it being the traditional type of teaching/learning where participants are in the same place at the same time. Instruction may be based on textbooks, lectures, tests, and assignments. Students are generally listening to lectures. The curriculum is set ahead of time and may not change from year to year.
Teaching techniques which work best for the traditional environment include “Discussion Strategies, Humor in the Classroom, and Lecture Strategies” (Merlot, 1997 – 2014). Each of these is useful for engaging students in face-to-face learning. In my current position, the trainer relies heavily on all three. She is dynamic and uses humor in her lectures to help with what might be an otherwise dull subject. She also has textbooks, tests, and learning assignments.
A second look indicates a metamorphosis to other types of learning, especially utilizing technology. Hybrid Learning Environments are described as the “best of both worlds” (Crawford, et al). This model brings technology into the classroom with online interactive activities. Doering and Veletsianos (2008) gave a great example of this – Adventure Learning using Go North! “The AL approach to design, development, and ultimately learning is based upon the understanding that experience rather than osmosis guides meaningful learning experiences”. This series of online programs uses both experiential learning and inquiry-based learning. Students and teachers alike were enthusiastic about the program.
Teaching strategies from Merlot are “Active Learning, Games/Experiments/Simulations, Inquiry-Guided Learning, Learning Communities, and Online/Hybrid Courses”. With Active Learning, the students are involved in the process and developing their problem solving and critical thinking skills. A game like this might be used for teaching language to higher-level learners. While successful with younger students, Active Learning would also be effective for adults. An example of this is the restaurant or museum visit for English Language Learners discussed in earlier units.
The third learning environment mentioned by Crawford, is Distance/Online Learning. With this format, there is no formal classroom and everything is done online.
Bates and Watson (2008) discuss the importance of course design to create an effective learning experience. Atkinson & Tomsen (2009) share their experiences with Second Life, a virtual learning game which has learners completely immersed in a realistic environment with the ability to change and control outcomes.
Teaching strategies that are applicable to Distance/Online Learning include Experiential Learning, Games/Experiments/Simulations, and Learner-Centered Teaching. With Learner-Centered Teaching, the instructor becomes the facilitator and students are responsible for learning. Students are encouraged to research topics and share their learning. Communication is very important. This is exactly what we are doing with this class at Post.
Online learning wasn’t my first thought for teaching ESL, but there has been documented success with audio/video recordings. Further research is needed to see if this is an option, but I believe Hybrid Learning will be best for adult ELL’s.
What an interesting lesson! I am remembering the lessons from my undergraduate classes which discussed different learning styles.
According to the Memletics Learning Styles Questionnaire (2003 –2007), there are seven distinct learning styles:
1) Visual (spatial).You prefer using pictures, images, and spatial understanding.
2) Aural (auditory-musical). You prefer using sound and music.
3) Verbal (linguistic). You prefer using words, both in speech and writing.
4) Physical (kinesthetic). You prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch.
5) Logical (mathematical). You prefer using logic, reasoning and systems.
6) Social (interpersonal). You prefer to learn in groups or with other people.
7) Solitary (intrapersonal). You prefer to work alone and use self-study.
It makes sense that different classroom settings would be more effective for different learners. The tools I predict having the greatest impact are the SMARTBoard and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL).
Do you think online will eventually, and completely, replace traditional classrooms?
Check It Out!
SMART Board – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0U05WeXPGlk
CALL – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ufvMr_IzjLY
The Flipped Classroom Model (J. Gerstein)
Advanology.com (2003 – 2007) Learning styles inventory. Retrieved from http://www.learning-styles-online.com/inventory/
Bates, C., & Watson, M. (2008). Re-learning teaching techniques to be effective in hybrid and online courses. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 13(1), 38-44.
Crawford, C. M., Smith, R. A., & Smith, M. S. (2008). Course student satisfaction results: Differentiation between face-to-face, hybrid, and online learning environments. [Article]. CEDER Yearbook, 135-149.
Doering, A., & Veletsianos, G. (2008). Hybrid online education: Identifying integration models using adventure learning. [Article]. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(1), 23-41.
Gerstein, J. (n.d.) The flipped classroom model. [Web log post] Retrieved from http://usergeneratededucation.wordpress.com/2011/06/13/the-flipped-classroom-model-a-full-picture/
GoNorth! Adventure Learning Series. LT Learning Lab. University of Minnesota. Retrieved from http://lt.umn.edu/projects/gonorth
Merlot Pedagogy. (1997-2014). Teaching strategies. Retrieved from http://pedagogy.merlot.org/TeachingStrategies.html